Tag: Vaccine Studies

The Guardian: UK scientists want to infect volunteers with Covid-19 in race to find vaccine

Scientists have warned there could be major delays in producing a Covid-19 vaccine if current UK infection rates remain low and lengthy waiting times are needed to show if candidate products are working. As a result, some researchers insist that ministers must now consider implementing radical alternative measures to speed up vaccine development.

Bloomberg: AstraZeneca Gets $1 Billion From U.S. to Make Oxford Vaccine

AstraZeneca Plc received more than $1 billion in U.S. government funding to develop a Covid-19 vaccine from the University of Oxford, and said it has supply agreements for 400 million doses.

The investment accelerates a race to secure vaccine supplies, seen as a key step toward getting global economies moving again after a lockdown-induced slump. Stock markets have been rising and falling on developments in research labs, as investors weigh the prospects for a successful shot.

The U.K. drugmaker received the money from the U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and said it has secured capacity to make 1 billion doses. The move comes as the company’s vaccine candidate is still in human trials, with no guarantee of success.

Posting anti-vaccine propaganda on social media could become criminal offence

Posting anti-vaccine propaganda on social media could become a criminal offence – even if those promoting it believe the pseudoscience, the UK’s new criminal Law Commissioner has said.

In her first interview since taking up the role, Penney Lewis, revealed she is considering whether laws should be amended to “lower the threshold” of criminality for posting false information online that endangers lives.

It comes as the Health Secretary Matt Hancock said in September he was “looking very seriously” at making vaccinations compulsory for state school pupils after the UK lost its official measles-free country status due to a steady fall in MMR immunisation rates.

 

Consequences of the Bayh-Dole Act

The Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 is arguably one of the most influential pieces of legislation to impact the field of intellectual property law in the twentieth century. The Bayh-Dole Act permits a university, small business, or non-profit institution using federal funds for research to produce an invention to retain the title on any patent issued for such inventions. Prior to this act, the government retained ownership of all patents granted using government money. The government also retained the right to license out the inventions to the private sector, which it did non-exclusively.

 

The Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Oral Polio Vaccine Among Young Infants in an Urban African Community: A Natural Experiment

Few studies have examined what happened to child survival when DTP and OPV were introduced in low-income countries. These vaccines were introduced in 1981 in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau from 3 months of age in connection with 3-monthly weighing sessions. Children were therefore allocated by birthday to receive vaccines early or late between 3 and 5 months of age. In this natural experiment vaccinated children had 5-fold higher mortality than not-yet-DTP-vaccinated children. DTP-only vaccinations were associated with higher mortality than DTP + OPV vaccinations. Hence, DTP may be associated with a negative effect on child survival.

 

Study Finds DTP Vaccine Increases Mortality in Young Infants 5 to 10-Fold Compared to Unvaccinated Infants

For many years, public health advocates have vainly urged the CDC and WHO to conduct studies comparing vaccinated vs. unvaccinated populations to measure overall health outcomes.  Now a team of Scandinavian scientists has conducted such a study and the results are alarming.  That study, funded in part by the Danish government and lead by Dr. Soren Wengel Mogensen, was published in January in EBioMedicine.  Mogensen and his team of scientists found that African children inoculated with the DTP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis) vaccine, during the early 1980s had a 5-10 times greater mortality than their unvaccinated peers.

The data suggest that, while the vaccine protects against infection from those three bacteria, it makes children more susceptible to dying from other causes.

 

Read the Fine Print: Vaccine Package Inserts Reveal Hundreds of Medical Conditions Linked to Vaccines

In March 2015, Dr. Anthony Fauci—the career National Institutes of Health official elevated by the media to the status of COVID-19 Grand Poobah—told PBS’s Frontline with a straight face that risks from vaccines are “almost nonmeasurable.” Fauci then proceeded to downplay every potential vaccine risk proposed by the interviewer, stating that each had “no basis in reality.” Having served at the helm of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) since 1984, Fauci surely was aware then, and is aware now, that the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program established in the late 1980s has paid out billions of dollars to the vaccine-injured: $4.3 billion as of April 1, 2020. Did Fauci feel that he could get away with making such dismissive statements because he knew about the Harvard study from 2010 showing that fewer than 1% of vaccine adverse events get reported—and what isn’t reported can’t be measured?

 

RT America: Video: The CDC is actually a vaccine company’ – Robert F. Kennedy Jr

Attorney Robert F. Kennedy Jr. of Children’s Health Defense joins to discuss the much-touted HPV vaccine, which new evidence shows may be ineffective and why it has done tremendous harm. He also explains how legal loopholes exempt vaccine makers from rigorous testing. He goes on to discuss the revolving door between Big Pharma and the bodies that are supposed to oversee it and curtail its abuses. He argues that regulatory capture has turned the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) into “a vaccine company.”

Biocompatible near-infrared quantum dots delivered to the skin by microneedle patches record vaccination

Vaccines prevent disease and save lives; however, lack of standardized immunization recordkeeping makes it challenging to track vaccine coverage across the world. McHugh et al. developed dissolvable microneedles that deliver patterns of near-infrared light-emitting microparticles to the skin. Particle patterns are invisible to the eye but can be imaged using modified smartphones. By codelivering a vaccine, the pattern of particles in the skin could serve as an on-person vaccination record. Patterns were detected 9 months after intradermal delivery of microparticles in rats, and codelivery of inactivated poliovirus led to protective antibody production. Discrete microneedle-delivered microparticle patterns in porcine and pigmented human skin were identifiable using semiautomated machine learning. These results demonstrate proof of concept for intradermal on-person vaccination recordkeeping.

 

The National Library of Medicine: Occurrence of Kawasaki disease after simultaneous immunization

A recent population‐based study has shown that vaccinations did not increase the risk of Kawasaki disease (KD).1 In contrast, various vaccines, including those against rotavirus, hepatitis B, and influenza, have been suggested to be triggers for KD occurrence.2 We report a pediatric case of KD that occurred after simultaneous immunization with measles/rubella, varicella, and pneumococcal vaccine, suggesting that the vaccination is associated with KD.

A healthy 14‐month‐old Japanese girl without any past or family histories had a fever the day after concomitant inoculation (day 1 of illness) with initial measles/rubella (MR), initial varicella, and fourth pneumococcal vaccination. On day 2 of illness, rash/redness appeared around the previous bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) inoculation site (Fig. 1a). On day 4 of illness, she had conjunctival congestion, rash on the trunk, oral‐mucosal inflammation, and reddening of palms with C‐reactive protein (CRP) 4.2 mg/dL and white blood cell count 18 200/μL. On day 5 of illness with persistent fever, she was diagnosed with definite KD on meeting five of the six KD criteria. Given that KD symptoms were resolving with decreasing serum CRP (3.2 mg/dL), aspirin was given on its own without i.v. immunoglobulin. Rash/redness around the BCG inoculation site was still evident, which became a crust on day 11 of illness (Fig. 1b). Echocardiography indicated neither coronary artery sequelae nor heart lesions throughout the clinical course. Antibody analysis on day 6 of illness was as follows: rubella (−), Varicella‐Zoster virus (VZV) (−), Epstein–Barr virus (−), and measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G (−)/IgM (+). Rubella, VZV, and measles seroconverted on antibody analysis 3 months after immunization. The parents of the patient provided informed consent for the publication of this report.

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Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) inoculation site on (a) day 2 and (b) day 11. (a) Redness at the site of previous BCG inoculation is evident. (b) Formation of crust at the BCG inoculation site, which is pathognomonic for Kawasaki disease.

Kawasaki disease symptoms in this patient appeared after simultaneous inoculation with MR, varicella, and pneumococcal vaccine. We diagnosed KD based on clinical symptoms and considered that vaccinations might be associated with KD occurrence. We suggest two possibilities to explain this clinical manifestation: triggered by one of the vaccinations, possibly measles, or by a reaction to the simultaneous immunization itself.

First, KD may have been triggered by one of the vaccinations, possibly measles. Vaccination sometimes accompanies/causes “fever” or “infection‐like symptoms”; therefore, we must distinguish KD from short‐term accompanying events with vaccination. This patient had rash/redness around the BCG inoculation site. It appeared soon after vaccination and gradually became a crust, and these findings are pathognomonic for KD. Rash/redness followed by crust formation at the BCG inoculation site has been observed in 70% of KD patients aged 3–20 months.3 The presence of five of the six KD criteria and this change at the BCG inoculation site were strongly suggestive of KD. In addition, we need to consider that this patient developed measles after immunization. Six days after vaccination, her serum measles antibody titer was elevated: measles IgG (−)/IgM (+). This result, however, is consistent with the reaction caused by measles vaccination. Also, the occurrence of fever soon after vaccination may rule out the possibility of modified measles caused by live vaccination, because this always takes several days to cause fever.

An association between measles or measles vaccination and KD occurrence has been previously reported. In a 6‐month‐old infant, KD occurred 2 weeks after measles. This suggests that measles triggered the KD through immunoreaction against measles infection.4 An earlier report described the isolation of measles virus from a pediatric patient with KD a few weeks after measles vaccination.5 Taken together, a possible association between vaccinations (especially measles) and KD occurrence is suggested, although it is still possible, however, that the timing of vaccinations just before the onset of Kawasaki disease was coincidental.

Second, vaccinations other than measles, that is, rubella, varicella, and pneumococcal vaccine, may have been associated with KD occurrence in this case. In particular, simultaneous inoculation may also be a cause of KD. Fever just after vaccination is possibly related to concomitant inoculation. Although simultaneous inoculation was shown not to increase side‐effects, it may trigger a stronger immunoreaction, causing fever and KD in this case.

Another point may be noteworthy. The present patient had the onset of KD only 1 day after the immunization: this rapidity/temporality is very limited. According to the review by Chang and Islam, only four cases were reported in which KD manifested ≤1 day after immunization, or KD symptoms appeared ≤12 h after the second shot of various vaccines.2 They speculated that this rapidity of symptom occurrence reflects “antigen sensitization” due to previous exposure to antigens, and is an immune‐mediated phenomenon. In the present case, however, only pneumococcal vaccination was the fourth shot, with the remaining vaccines (MR and varicella) being given for the first time.

In conclusion, the present single case supports the suggestion that vaccination triggers KD. Information on cases of KD associated with vaccination should be accumulated to clarify the pathophysiology or etiology of KD.

Disclosure

The authors declare no conflict of interests.